Metformin Hydrochloride is a biguanide antidiabetic. Glucomet® is given orally for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glucomet® does not stimulate insulin release and requires that some insulin be present in order to exert its antidiabetic effect. Possible mechanisms of action include delay in the absorption of glucose from the gastro-intestinal tract, an increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake into cells, and inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Glucomet® does not produce hypoglycaemia in either normal subjects or patients with type 2 diabetes and does not cause hyperinsulinaemia.
Metformin Hydrochloride is slowly and incompletely absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract; the absolute bioavailability of a single 500mg dose is reported to be about 50 to 60%, although this is reduced somewhat if taken with food. Following absorption plasma protein binding is negligible, and it is excreted unchanged in the urine. The plasma elimination half-life is reported to range from about 2 to 6 hours after oral administration.
Glucomet® as monotherapy is indicated as an adjunct to diet and excercise in the management of type 2 diabetes. Glucomet® XR 500 Extended Release Tablet is specially made to release the drug slowly in the body and therefore is different from many other types of tablets containing metformin. Glucomet® may be used in combination with sulphonylureas, thiazolidinediones and insulin to improve glycaemic control in adults.